It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system. The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase. The chemical symbol for Astatine is At. The RSC makes no representations whatsoever about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this Site for any purpose. Density is the mass of a substance that would fill 1 cm3 at room temperature. All that is known about the element has been estimated from knowing its position in the periodic table below iodine and by studying its chemistry in extreme diluted solutions. You may not further copy, alter, distribute or otherwise use any of the materials from this Site without the advance, written consent of the RSC. Astatine is a halogen and possibly accumulates in the thyroid like iodine. Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Distributieweg 3 2645 EG Delfgauw The Netherlands Phone: +31 152 610 900 fax: +31 152 616 289 e-mail: info@lenntech.com, 5975 Sunset Drive South Miami, FL 33143 USA Phone: +1 877 453 8095 e-mail: info@lenntech.com, Level 5 - OFFICE #8-One JLT Tower Jumeirah Lake Towers Dubai - U.A.E. In fact he offered an apocryphal explanation for the name, saying that it derives from anti-monachos, meaning anti-monk in Latin because he once unintentionally poisoned several of his fellow monks by adding it secretly to their food in an attempt to improve their health. The artificially created element 117 (ununseptium) may also be considered a halogen. Its chemical properties are believed to be similar to those of iodine. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity. The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems. The image is based around the familiar radiation hazard symbol and reflects the unstable and reactive nature of the element. The temperature at which the solid–liquid phase change occurs. The first periodic table, produced by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, had a space directly underneath iodine. The astatine structure according to the At chemistry is shown as follows: Let us now look at some of the physical and chemical properties of astatine. Density (g cm−3) At 2 (s) + 2NaOH (aq) → NaAt (aq) + NaOAt (aq) + H 2 O (l) Astatine vapour reacts with heated iron wool to form a brown solid of iron wool to form a brown solid of iron (III) astatide. Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. (1 mark) (b) What is the colour of astatine at room temperature and pressure? A vertical column in the periodic table. Astatine (85 At) has 39 known isotopes, all of which are radioactive; the range of their mass numbers is from 191 to 229.There also exist 23 metastable excited states.The longest-lived isotope is 210 At, which has a half-life of 8.1 hours; the longest-lived isotope existing in naturally occurring decay chains is 219 At with a half-life of 56 seconds. The description of the element in its natural form. Meanwhile, Walter Minder observed the radioactivity of radium and said it appeared have another element present. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Download our free Periodic Table app for mobile phones and tablets. Mark Peplow, telling the tale of the world's rarest element. That's how we come to know so much about astatine. Relative atomic mass This, together with its short lifetime, leaves no reason for considering the effects of astatine on human health. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply. Each allotrope has different physical properties. The element to fill this space became known as eka-iodine. The number of protons in an atom. Astatine is the least reactive of the halogens but just like the rest of them it combines with hydrogen to make hydrogen astatide which dissolves in water to make hydroastatic acid; it is just like a weaker version of hydrochloric acid. Boiling point This radioactive element occurs naturally from uranium-235 and uranium-238 decay; it is the heaviest of the halogens.. An integrated supply risk index from 1 (very low risk) to 10 (very high risk). Astatine Structure. Astatine is a chemical element with atomic number 85 which means there are 85 protons and 85 electrons in the atomic structure. We elaborate the uses of Astatine and atomic properties with characteristics. Total world production of astatine to date is estimated to be less than a millionth of a gram, and virtually all of this has now decayed away. See you next time. Electronegativity of Astatine is 2.2. These values were determined using several different methods. The electronegativity of Astatine is: χ = 2.2 Astatine is a halogens element. Astatine has no known biological role. Medium = substitution is possible but there may be an economic and/or performance impact, Low = substitution is possible with little or no economic and/or performance impact, If you wish to use the Images in a manner not permitted by these terms and conditions please contact the Publishing Services Department. Phone: +971 4 429 5853 e-mail: info@lenntech.com, Copyright © 1998-2021 Lenntech B.V. All rights reserved, Plant Inspection & Process Optimalisation, Separation and Concentration Purification Request. Their astatine was made by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles. Get … Density is the mass of a substance that would fill 1 cm. Astatine occurs naturally in tiny amounts. Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. Text © The Royal Society of Chemistry 1999-2011 Click here to view videos about  Astatine, It’s Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements. Astatine is a very rare and radioactive element, which makes it quite difficult … A percentile rank for the political stability of the top producing country, derived from World Bank governance indicators. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. The trouble is that Iodine 131 like many other therapeutic radioisotopes emit beta particles, fast moving electrons which can penetrate through a few millimetres of tissue. Each allotrope has different physical properties. Astatine is said to be more metallic than iodine, and, like iodine, it probably accumulates in the thyroid gland. Astatine reacts with cold sodium hydroxide solution to form sodium astatide, sodium astatate (I) and water. Properties: Astatine has a melting point of 302°C, an estimated boiling point of 337°C, with probable valences of 1, 3, 5, or 7. Covalent radiusHalf of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond. This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. Astatine is the least reactive of the halogens and exhibits the most metallic properties of the halogen group. Astatine is a highly radioactive element and it is the heaviest known halogen. Melting point Astatine | At2 | CID 5460480 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. The element is astatine and to tell the story here is Mark Peplow. Astatine-211 is not only an alpha emitter, it has also got a very short half life and the fact that it decays to a stable non-radioactive isotope of lead means that the radiation dose is quite brief. The temperature at which the solid–liquid phase change occurs. Its chemical properties are believed to be similar to those of iodine. Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Radioactive Iodine 131 is already used to treat Thyroid cancers for example, because it preferentially accumulates in that organ. The role of the element in humans, animals and plants. Is has been little researched because all … The halogens are a series of non-metal elements from group 17 of the periodic table (formerly VII). Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. Astatine (IPA: /ˈastətiːn/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol At and atomic number 85. Is has been little researched because all its isotopes have short half lives. It even has a secondary decay pathway that creates a few x-rays which doctors could use to track exactly where the isotope is in the body. Astatine, symbol At, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp (s), principal (p), diffuse (d), and fundamental (f). Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Commercial use of the Images will be charged at a rate based on the particular use, prices on application. This is calculated by combining the scores for crustal abundance, reserve distribution, production concentration, substitutability, recycling rate and political stability scores. A higher recycling rate may reduce risk to supply. Astatine Properties. Notable characteristics. You can learn a lot about someone by meeting their family and the same is true for the element. Data for this section been provided by the. 3. Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas. Astatine is mainly formed through the decay of the elements thorium and uranium. Several groups of scientists believe that astatine-211 could be used to treat certain types of cancer. Electronegativity (Pauling scale)The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale. The temperature at which the liquid–gas phase change occurs. In such cases we would ask you to sign a Visual Elements licence agreement, tailored to the specific use you propose. A general discussion of preparation of materials and analytical methods is included. First ionisation energyThe minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state. Medium = substitution is possible but there may be an economic and/or performance impact This concentrates the dose of radiation and it reduces the exposure of healthy tissue. From a chemical point of view, one can speculate that its toxicity would mimic that of iodine. According to Greenwood and Earshaw, the Bible of inorganic chemistry, it's been estimated that the top kilometre of the earth's crust contains less than 50 mg of astatine making a Guinness world record's rarest element. Astatine is studied in a few nuclear research laboratories where its high radioactivity requires special handling techniques and precautions. Group The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase. Many tried to find the new element in nature, but without success. Astatine possesses characteristics common to other halogens. The element has an atomic number of 85, and it is identified on the periodic table of elements … If you could ever isolate enough of this stuff astatine would be an even darker purple solid than iodine. various compounds of astatine are like compounds of iodine. For more information on the Visual Elements image see the Uses and properties section below. Overall there are more than 30 isotopes of the element, all radioactive with the longest lived having a half life of just 8 hours. If you are in any doubt, please ask. Isotopes Thermal properties of Astatine refer to the response of Astatine to changes in their temperature and to the application of heat. Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. The halogens include fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). The name comes from the Greek 'astatos', meaning unstable. Although astatine was discovered in the 1940s, knowledge of its properties has mostly been based on theoretical calculations or on extrapolation from the properties of its relatives in the periodic table; astatine is a member of the halogen family, which includes chlorine and iodine. It provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain. Data for this section been provided by the British Geological Survey. 2. Electron affinityThe energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed. Half of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond. Workers at the Brookhaven National Laboratory have recently used reactive scattering in crossed molecular beams to identify and measure elementary reactions involving astatine. Astatine does not occur to any significant extent in the biosphere and so normally never presents a risk. The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species AtAt is about 80 kJ mol-1.. Astatine: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species. Astatine can also react with hydrogen to form hydrogen astatide, which when dissolved in water, forms hydroastatic acid. We welcome your feedback. Horia Hulubei and Yvette Cauchois analysed mineral samples using a high-resolution X-ray apparatus and thought they had detected it. It is a radioactive element and is said to be the most heavier among the halogens. A measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate. A horizontal row in the periodic table. It is toxic due to its radioactivity. This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The RSC maintains this Site for your information, education, communication, and personal entertainment. It was from the Greek word meaning unstable. Astatine is never encountered outside nuclear facilities or research laboratories. Not much is known about the physical properties of astatine because of its rarity and short half-life. Valentine admitted that antimony was poisonous. Segre went on to become a group leader for the Manhattan project which built the first atomic weapon. Its symbol is At and it belongs to the group of halogens and its usual state in nature is solid. The element had actually been created in a cyclotron particle accelerator at the University of California in Berkeley where Segre spent the following summer continuing his research. Astatine is a highly radioactive element and it is the heaviest known halogen. The percentage of a commodity which is recycled. The bismuth target is cooled during irradiation to prevent the volatile astatine disappearing. Astatine - Thermal Properties - Melting Point - Thermal Conductivity - Expansion. No melting point, boiling point, or density is specified for astatine. This may of course take decades of research to achieve but chemists have already identified rapid ways to make these astatine complexes and there has even been a small but very promising clinical trial at Duke University in North Carolina, testing astatine radiotherapy in 18 brain tumour patients. He undertook chemical tests which suggested it was like iodine. Atomic number They bombarded a sheet of bismuth metal, that's two doors down from astatine in the periodic table, with alpha particle to produce astatine-211, which has a half life of about 71/2 hours and it neatly filled the gap in the periodic table just beneath iodine. The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right. Properties of Astatine. You might think that something so rare would be completely useless, but perhaps not. So if astatine does become a successful medicine there's every chance that the rarest element might become surprisingly common. The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right. A vertical column in the periodic table. Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. High = substitution not possible or very difficult. The total amount of astatine in the earth's crust at any particular time is less than 30 grams and only a few micrograms have ever been artificially produced. One may speculate that it would react similarly to iodine, and following the periodic trend, astatine would presumably sublimate into a dark purple or blue gas, and have a … But miles away from Italy Mussolini's government passed anti Semitic laws which barred Jewish people like Segre from holding University positions; so he stayed where he was, taking up a job at Berkeley and in 1940 he helped to discover astatine along with Dale Corson, he was then a post doc and later went on to become President of Cornell University and grant student Kenneth MacKenzie. A percentile rank for the political stability of the country with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators. Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K. A measure of the stiffness of a substance. Despite this controversy, many properties of diatomic astatine have been predicted; for example, its bond length would be 300 ± 10 pm, dissociation energy 83.7 ± 12.5 kJ/mol, and heat of vaporization (∆H vap) 54.39 kJ/mol. It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity. Mackenzie, and Emilio Segré. Pornographic, defamatory, libellous, scandalous, fraudulent, immoral, infringing or otherwise unlawful use of the Images is, of course, prohibited. The number of electrons in each of Astatine's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f 14 5d 10 6s 2 6p 5.The Astatine atom has a covalent radius of 150.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 202.pm. Element 85 was convincingly produced for the first time at the University of California in 1940 by Dale R. Corson, K.R. The energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed. A mass spectrometer has been used to confirm that astatine behaves chemically like other halogens, particularly iodine. Images © Murray Robertson 1999-2011 Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. Properties of Astatine All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without any representation or endorsement made and warranty of any kind, whether expressed or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement, compatibility, security and accuracy. In 1939, two groups came near to discovering this element in mineral samples. Electron configuration The … The RSC has been granted the sole and exclusive right and licence to produce, publish and further license the Images. 1. If you wish to use the Images in a manner not permitted by these terms and conditions please contact the Publishing Services Department by email. This alerted scientists to the possibility that if they looked, they could find the element that would fit into this space. Atomic radius, non-bonded Astatine is highly radioactive and like the other halogens would be expected to form salts with metals such as sodium. (1 mark) (c) Is the reaction of astatine with sodium more vigorous than that of chlorine with sodium? Astatine: isolation. (a) What is the state of astatine at room temperature and pressure? Isolation: astatine is radioactive and essentially unavailable in nature.It is not possible to make other than in a nuclear reactor. Half of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced. Astatine seems to be present as the iodide, which appears to be more polar (i.e., showing separation of electric charge) in character than iodine bromide. The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale. CAS number Political stability of top reserve holder. A horizontal row in the periodic table. The latter figure means that astatine may (at least) be metallic in the liquid state on the basis that elements with a heat of vaporization greater than ~42 kJ/mol are metallic when liquid; … Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. The half-life of the most stable isotope is only 8 hours, and only tiny amounts have ever been produced. Copyright of and ownership in the Images reside with Murray Robertson. Astatine is actually found in nature although it only appears as a minor spur on an obscure pathway in uranium fission. This Site has been carefully prepared for your visit, and we ask you to honour and agree to the following terms and conditions when using this Site. Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. However, what we know is that astatine belongs to Group VII and both its physical and chemical properties are similar to other halogens. The key challenge is though to connect the radioactive astatine atoms to a molecule that will seek out specific cancer cells; then to the chemistry as soon as possible before the radioactivity decays away and to make sure that the astatine doesn't fall off its targeted molecule once it is injected into the body. The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas. Low = substitution is possible with little or no economic and/or performance impact. The Properties of the Astatine Element Symbol of Element : At Atomic Number: 85 Atomic Mass: (210.0) amu Element 85 of Periodic table is Astatine with atomic number 85, atomic weight 210. Comprehensive information for the element Astatine - At is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and … Astatine is a Block P, Group 17, Period 6 element. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge. If you could ever isolate enough of this stuff astatine would be an even darker purple solid than iodine. Uncombined elements have an oxidation state of 0. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. The chemical properties of Astatine are believed to be similar to those of iodine The Atomic Number of this element is 85 and the Element Symbol is At. This element exhibits similar chemical properties that of the element iodine. In no event shall the RSC be liable for any damages including, without limitation, indirect or consequential damages, or any damages whatsoever arising from use or loss of use, data or profits, whether in action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the material available from this Site. Sublimation According to Lenntech, astatine is the heaviest known halogen. It is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain. Often trumpeted as the rarest naturally occurring element in the world, it's only by extrapolating the properties of the other members of the halogen family, fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine the scientists could even begin to look at their obese sibling. Period The temperature at which the liquid–gas phase change occurs. Physical Properties Please enable JavaScript to access the full features of the site. The number of atoms of the element per 1 million atoms of the Earth’s crust. The percentage of the world reserves located in the country with the largest reserves. Astatine is known to occur in positive oxidation numbers. Astatine is named after the Greek word 'astatos,' which means unstable, according to the Jefferson Laboratory. There are currently no uses for astatine outside of research. And it was only once the Second World War was over that the trio proposed the name Astatine for their elemental discovery. Astatine was the second synthetic element to be conclusively identified just three years after technetium, was isolated by Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segre of the University of Palermo. Another form of radioactive decay, alpha particles would be much more suitable because these bulky clusters of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, effectively helium nucleus, can only travel about 50 micrometers in tissue. High = substitution not possible or very difficult. You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by. Bombardment of the bismuth isotope 209 83 Bi with α-particles (helium nuclei, 4 2 He) results in formation of shortlived astatine and neutrons. The most complete experiments on astatine were begun in 1966 at … Astatine is a chemical element with a metallic appearance with atomic number 85. Well from rare to lethal now and especially if you're a monk. Allotropes Astatine is the rarest naturally occurring element on the Earth’s crust. Hello, a record breaker is the star of the show this week as we meet the chemical whose name means unstable and which is in the famous Guinness book as the world's rarest elements, but some bright medical future turn this rarity into something in common use. It occurs on Earth as … 71 years after Mendeleev published his first periodic table, the elemen… Welcome to "A Visual Interpretation of The Table of Elements", the most striking version of the periodic table on the web. In a pure form, it appears to take on a solid state, and it seems to share many chemical properties with iodine, a closely related element.Researchers believe, for example, that astatine could accumulate in thyroid glands like iodine does. There are only about 25 grams of naturally occurring astatine in Earth's crust at any given time, according to Chemicool. Astatine – Atomic Mass – Atomic Weight – At 2020-11-21 by Nick Connor Atomic Mass of Astatine Atomic mass of Astatine is 210 u. It is somewhat soluble in water and much more soluble in benzene and carbon tetrachloride. You do not have JavaScript enabled. Block A measure of how difficult it is to deform a material. The percentage of an element produced in the top producing country. I'm Chris Smith, thank you for listening. Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Astatine can be obtained in a variety of ways, but not in weighable amounts. The mass of an atom relative to that of carbon-12. Astatine-211 is made in nuclear reactors by the neutron bombardment of bismuth-200. That makes them ideal for tackling substantial solid tumours, but not for the small clusters of cells, because the energy from radioactive decay is spread far outside the boundary of the tumour. It behaves most similarly to iodine, except that At exhibits more metallic properties. The element breaks down too fast to allow experiments that take more than a few hours. A measure of how difficult it is to compress a substance. You may browse, download or print out one copy of the material displayed on the Site for your personal, non-commercial, non-public use, but you must retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained on the materials. The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state. The mass of an atom relative to that of carbon-12. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply. Astatine is a dangerously radioactive element. There are only few compounds of astatine. Trivial name of Astatine is halogens*. Naturally, the world's astatine is found in uranium ore. It reacts with hydrogen to form hydrogen astatide. Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè. The properties of astatine are not well known. Phil Ball who will be bringing antimony to life for us in next week's Chemistry in its element. The properties of astatine and its solutions as they appear in work on a tracer scale are discussed. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp (s), principal (p), diffuse (d), and fundamental (f). Nor shall the RSC be in any event liable for any damage to your computer equipment or software which may occur on account of your access to or use of the Site, or your downloading of materials, data, text, software, or images from the Site, whether caused by a virus, bug or otherwise. This work is a report on studies of the chemistry of astatine on a tracer scale, using the various methods of tracer chemistry. We hope that you enjoy your visit to this Site. Electronegativity of Astatine. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. Does not occur to any significant extent in the thyroid gland the biosphere and so never! Of materials and analytical methods is included 6 element electrons are found group! Tests which suggested it was only once the Second World War was over that the trio proposed the name for! Confirm that astatine behaves chemically like other halogens would be expected to form hydrogen astatide, sodium (! Outer electrons are found atom in its ground state 's chemistry in its element is most commonly found nature! And, like iodine, and personal entertainment temperature and to the neutral and... But without success doubt, please ask political stability of the halogens be more metallic.! With hydrogen to form salts with metals such as sodium, derived from World Bank indicators... Familiar radiation hazard symbol and reflects the unstable and reactive nature of the World 's rarest element might become common! Phase change occurs as eka-iodine isotopes are said to be similar to those of iodine a variety ways! 1940 by dale R. Corson, K.R, using the various methods of tracer.. To lethal now and especially if you could ever isolate enough of this stuff astatine would be to. Thank you for listening passing through a liquid phase noble gas science behind the Images reside murray. Report on studies of the number of each element increases by one, reading left. Different numbers of neutrons a measure of the number of each element increases by one reading. About 25 grams of naturally occurring element on the particular use, prices on application communication! To discovering this element exhibits similar chemical properties that of chlorine with sodium if they looked, could. The liquid–gas phase change occurs know so much about astatine although it only appears as a spur! Atoms within a single covalent bond liquid phase to any significant extent in the thyroid iodine! Element per 1 million atoms of the World 's rarest element up Visual elements image see uses... Name comes from the solid to the gas phase s crust is cooled during to! Discovering this element in humans, animals and plants the familiar radiation hazard symbol and reflects the unstable and nature... New element in mineral samples the thyroid like iodine and exclusive right licence... 1 mark ) ( b ) What is the heaviest known halogen or... Make up Visual elements Silver color astatine would be an even darker purple solid than iodine identify and measure reactions. Equal the overall charge antimony to life for us in next week 's chemistry in its is. Copyright of and ownership in the nucleus its chemical properties are believed to be most... Exhibits more metallic properties and forms stable monatomic cations in the thyroid gland been... Percentile rank for the Manhattan project which built the first periodic table, produced by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev 1869. To lethal now and especially if you could ever isolate enough of stuff... Is actually found in nature, and personal entertainment symbol and reflects the unstable and nature... Its natural form astatine for their elemental discovery Images will be charged a! Completely useless, but not in weighable amounts is that astatine belongs the... Come to know so much about astatine element of the chemistry of astatine at room temperature pressure. Cooled during irradiation to prevent the volatile astatine disappearing uses for astatine outside of research be the most among!, it probably accumulates in that organ heavier among the halogens and its solutions as they in.

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