Beside Affinis group, all the other tested VPSs showed slightly increased but statistically similar YS values when the HBs were compared with the corresponding LBs produced by the same manufacturer. Author information: (1)Department of Oral Function and Rehabilitation, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Japan Three areas of each specimen narrow portion were measured and checked three times to accurately confirm their width and thickness, which were averaged to obtain a final measurement. Based on the results of the present study, the null hypothesis that there was no difference in the tensile properties among the different impression materials and consistencies tested was rejected. Rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials for selective pressure impression technique. The elastic nature of impression materials prevents the use of most hardness tests except for the Shore A, which uses a Shore A durometer whereby the value describes the material elasticity. Apart from the chemical nature of the material, the primary method of classification is according to consistency. With regard to the mechanical properties tested, considering all different viscosities, VPSs and VPESs showed higher in vitro results for tensile strength at break (TSb) and yield strength (YS) than PE. On the contrary, for PE impression materials, the heavy-body product showed higher USb values than the light-body product (HB: 77.17 mm, LB: 45.68 mm). Table 2. A study of the “thixotropic” property of elastomeric impression materials. As a consequence, an impression material showing a TSb/YS ratio sufficiently close to 1 (i.e., yield strength value relatively close to the corresponding tensile strength at break) should probably be preferred, especially concerning the light bodies, which are generally employed in thin interproximal and crevicular areas. ADA, “Specification no. 0000028989 00000 n The polymerized material have to maintain its elasticity under stresses created, for instance, when it flexes over tissue undercuts. 2007 Oct;16(5):343–51. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (). A timer was started immediately after the impression material was first dispensed into the mold. shows the properties of different elastomeric impression materials. 0000033833 00000 n The yield point was defined according to the 0.2% offset method, by estimating a 0.2% permanent deformation as a clinically significant deformation limit. Purpose. Chai et al.—in a study comparing a wide range of materials of different brands and categories—reported a high strain tolerance of the VPS impression materials that might facilitate their removal without distortion from appreciable tissue undercuts [15]. In addition, the applied ANSI/ADA specification just takes into consideration a thickness of 2 mm for the fabrication of samples. 0000001930 00000 n Hondrum[15] investigated the changes in the properties of nonaqueous elastomeric impression materials over time and on exposure to various environmental conditions. – They are hydrophobic, and the setting process is the re sult of a condensation reaction. 0000002062 00000 n 0000001616 00000 n The specimens were loaded in tension until failure (Figure 5) with a crosshead speed of 250 mm/minute. Only for PE impression materials the heavy body showed higher Sy values than the light body (HB: 48.23 mm, LB: 18.56 mm). 0000146873 00000 n – With proper handling, polysulfide impression materials can be used for inlays, crowns, and bridges. 0000007852 00000 n Once the mold was assembled (c), paths for the injection of the impression materials through lateral apertures were made available. The lower plate contained three dumbbell-shaped perforations so that, once assembled with the upper plate, three paths for the injection of the impression materials were made available (Figures 2(c) and 3(a)). J Prosthodont Off J Am Coll Prosthodont. Hondrum[15] investigated the changes in the properties of nonaqueous elastomeric impression materials over time and on exposure to various environmental conditions. 0000006117 00000 n Elastomeric impression materials are in common use. Chew C, Chee WWL, Donovan TE. In prosthodontics, impression materials are used to record intraoral structures for the fabrication of definitive restorations. 12 vinylpolysiloxane, 2 polyether, and 3 hybrid vinylpolyether silicone-based impression materials were tested. Thus, when we consider the pressure during impression taking for dentures, the viscoelastic rheological properties of impression material and the time immediately after seating a tray with the impression material Similarly, the dimensional accuracy and a reliable detailed reproduction of both impressions and corresponding models from which a restoration can be manufactured in the laboratory appear mandatory [5]. A different behavior was recorded for the VPES material, whose medium and light viscosities (MB = 3.16 MPa; LB = 4.03 MPa) showed significantly increased TSb values () compared to the HB viscosity (1.42 MPa). 0000003207 00000 n This … The Impression materials are classified based on their function – Dentulous or Edentulous Impression, based on their type – Elastic or Rigid etc. Viscoelastic properties of impression materials 125 of the material; for example material E is much nearer to perfect elasticity than material A although the latter is more flexible. Elastomeric Impression materials: These are basically synthetic rubber based materials which were initially called as Rubber Impression materials but currently they are known as Non aqueous Elastomeric Impression materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of some disinfectant materials with two different techniques on surface detail and dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. However, there is little information on the mechanical properties such as tensile and yield strengths of new elastomeric impression materials. PROPERTIES OF IMPRESSION MATERIALS: Accuracy: According to American Dental Association specification number 19, to create exact castings, elastomeric impression materials must be able to reproduce fine detail of 25 μm or less. Properties of elastomeric impression materials Working and setting times Dimensional stability Reproduction of oral structure details Disinfection Tear … have found a lower tensile strength of a soft polyether (Impregum, 3M ESPE) compared to two hydrophilic addition silicones (Imprint II, 3M ESPE and Flexitime, Heraeus); the authors also reported higher tear properties and tensile strength of heavy-body materials than light viscosities [9]. Immediately following preparation (Figure 4), the specimens were secured into the Instron universal testing machine (Instron Corp., Canton, MA, USA), gripping them on both sides by pneumatic clamps at the location of the previously applied benchmarks. %PDF-1.4 %���� Within the heavy bodies, Aquasil TSb was statistically comparable to Affinis (4.93 MPa) and Flexitime (4.91 MPa), while within the light bodies Aquasil (4.98 MPa) was comparable to Exa’lence (4.03 MPa) and Flexitime (3.02 MPa). Adequate mechanical properties ensure that the impression material can withstand various stresses upon removal, while maintaining dimensional stability and integrity. The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. Elastomeric impression materials are available in two-paste system, as base paste and reactor liquid, two putty system and/or base putty and a reactor liquid. 19 for Non-Aqueous, Elastomeric Dental Impression Materials. Before the test began, the jig was adjusted so that the specimen was neither in compression nor in tension. Results. Vinylpolysiloxanes consistently showed higher tensile strength values than polyethers. 1993; 21: 297-301 Surface properties of elastomeric impression materials N. Vassilakos and C. Pinheiro Fernandes Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Centre for Oral Health Sciences, Lund University, Malm Sweden ABSTRACT This study investigated the wettability of commonly used elastomeric impression materials and their gypsum castability. Elastomers are polymers characterized by highly flexible kinked segments that allow freedom of movement. It is also apparent from Figs 2 and 3 that some materials such as the polysulphides The level of was set at 0.05 in all tests. University of Michigan School of Dentistry Ann Arbor, Michigan. 0000031569 00000 n However, the viscoelastic rheological properties of impression materials, particularly the time-dependent viscoelastic changes in impression material immediately after tray seating, are unknown. For each material, 10 dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated (), according to the ISO 37:2005 specifications, and loa… This can be probably seen as a further clinical advantage of the new VPES hybrid material. Indeed, the ideal impression material should exhibit maximum energy absorption without tearing and with minimal distortion. Elastomeric Impression Material Mechanical Properties Detail Reproduction: Impression materials must reproduce the fi nest details of the oral tissues and be able to transfer them accurately to gypsum dies or digital scanners. Different disinfectant materials and techniques can be used to eliminate this threat. 49. 0000031677 00000 n PVS impression materials can make details of even 1 to 2μm. Benchmarks were drawn on the specimen, 12.5 mm on either side of the center line, thus setting the test length of the dumbbell specimens at 25 mm, according to ISO 37:2005 and ASTM.D412 (Table 2). Introduction Impressions of the teeth and oral soft tissues are frequently obtained during dental treatment.1 Elastomeric impression materials have been used with good clinical results for all kinds of restorations because of their A classification and some properties of these materials is given in the ISO Standard for Dental Elastomeric Impression Materials (ISO 4823). PROPERTIES OF IMPRESSION MATERIALS: Accuracy: According to American Dental Association specification number 19, to create exact castings, elastomeric impression materials must be able to reproduce fine detail of 25 μm or less. 23 An accurate impression is an important step … 0000031199 00000 n 18—2004,” Council on Dental Materials, Instruments, and Equipment. The ideal impression material should exhibit adequate mechanical properties to withstand stresses under various clinical scenarios. Rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials for selective pressure impression technique. In general, the qualities of addition silicones and polyethers were superior to polysulfides and condensation silicones. For this purpose, a stainless steel split mold made out of two perfectly fitting upper and lower plates was used (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). 0000025442 00000 n Dimensional stability and wettability (resulting in minimal voids and detailed reproduction of intraoral structures) are the main features of PE materials [10, 11]. A method of measuring torsional shear modulus and rigidity of elastomeric impression materials has been developed and is described. [20] recently suggested that high impression material rigidity and hardness are not predictors of impression removal difficulty. 0000025029 00000 n The visco-elastic properties of a number of set elastomeric impression materials were determined using a torsional pendulum apparatus i.e. In this study, we examined the rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials, both before and during setting, to assess the clinical significance of certain key characteristics such as viscosity, pseudo-plasticity, and the rate of development of elasticity. The selective impression technique is recommended for removable prosthodontics. 0000024640 00000 n On the other hand, a difficulty of removing impressions made of polyether from the mouth, and also an increased risk of die breakage, could be associated with the higher rigidity of these materials when compared to VPS [11]. There are 4 groups of elastomers; polysulfide, condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether; each differ in their setting mechanism and their physical and chemical properties. Purpose. However, the viscoelastic rheological properties of impression materials, particularly the time-dependent viscoelastic changes in impression material immediately after tray seating, are unknown. The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. These elastomeric impression materials are combinations of VPS and PE and are promoted as hydrophilic materials that presumably maintain the stability and characteristics of the parent products [12, 13]. Elastomeric impression materials are in common use. Int J Prosthodont 1994; 7:155- 8. The tear of elastomeric materials is a mechanical rupture process initiated and propagated at a site of high stress concentration caused by cut, defect, or localized deformation. This chapter addresses the manipulation of addition silicone (polyvinylsiloxanes or polysiloxanes) impression material. 0000016441 00000 n Nevertheless, impressions are clinically subjected to tensile forces immediately after the manufacturer’s setting time. 19 for dental elastomeric impression material. Lu et al. Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Comparison By Dino Re, Francesco De Angelis, Gabriele Augusti, Davide Augusti, Sergio Caputi, Maurizio D’Amario and … From the present results, the TSb/YS ratios ranged between 0.396 (Acqu-LB group) and 0.764 (Hydro-MB group). Walker MP, Rondeau M, Petrie C, Tasca A, Williams K. Surface quality and long-term dimensional stability of current elastomeric impression materials after disinfection. High USb and Ys values represent positive features, as they indicate the ability for the impression material to be considerably stretched or deformed, while clinically overcoming wide undercuts, without undergoing breakage or permanent deformations. Four types of elastomeric impression materials are available for crowns and fixed partial denture impres-sions : addition silicone, condensation silicone, polysul- An Impression material is the substance used to achieve a negative reproduction of the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity, to attain the perfect reproduction of the Oral cavity the Impression material needs to have certain ideal Properties to achieve the perfect impression or reproduction of the patients oral cavity and tooth or teeth in question. Under stress (load/area), the segments will uncoil. With viscoelastic materials, such as dental impression materials, deformation also depends on temperature and rate of stress [17]. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 0000009229 00000 n 0000036149 00000 n Before injection, a small amount of material was extruded and discarded to ensure proper mixing in the dispensing tip. 0000025561 00000 n It is also apparent from Figs 2 and 3 that some materials such as the polysulphides have substantial changes in properties with time after setting compared to the silicone or polyether impression materials. Tear, tensile, and yield strengths are important properties for impression materials; they have been investigated by several studies [6, 9, 14, 15]. A previous research revealed that there are significant differences between testing immediately after the setting time and 24 hours following the setting time [23]. It is related to having the properties of elastomers. 0000112555 00000 n 1 The amount of shrinkage is lower with polyvinyl siloxane materials compared to polyether materials. 0000003908 00000 n Injection of the impression materials through dedicated, commercially available tips (a) allowed the production of up to three samples at the same time (b). The medium-body materials of some brands (Flexitime and Hydrorise) presented intermediate USb values, while for other brands the USb of the medium body was comparable to the corresponding LB (Aquasil) or HB (Exa’lence, Affinis). 0000015634 00000 n This appears in accordance with Lu et al.’s work [9] that demonstrated that the PE impression materials tested had significantly lower tensile strength and higher strain in compression compared to new addition silicone materials. Accuracy of impression is depends on dimensional stability of impression material, 22 and influenced by a number of factors such as impression technique, impression tray and properties of the impression materials. The accuracy of these final restorations is highly dependent on the impression materials and techniques utilized. VPS are intrinsically hydrophobic in nature, which can result in voids at the margin of the tooth preparation in the impression and bubbles in gypsum casts. 0000036019 00000 n The elastic properties of these elastomeric impression materials improve with an increase in curing time in the mouth An extra time of 1 or 2 min before removal may … The HB viscosity of the PE-based Impregum presented the highest USb value among all other HBs examined. As a general trend, the material that is more rigid also possesses higher yield strength [15]. 0000033493 00000 n A method of measuring torsional shear modulus and rigidity of elastomeric impression materials has been developed and is described. Copyright © 2015 Dino Re et al. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. 1993; 21: 297-301 Surface properties of elastomeric impression materials N. Vassilakos and C. Pinheiro Fernandes Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Centre for Oral Health Sciences, Lund University, Malm Sweden ABSTRACT This study investigated the wettability of commonly used elastomeric impression materials and their gypsum castability. – However, they are not as accurate as other non aqueous elastomeric materials. … the actual impression material is the most influential [11,18]. HB = heavy body; MB = medium body; and LB = light body. 2015, Article ID 428286, 8 pages, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/428286, 1Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Istituto Stomatologico Italiano, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy, 2Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti, 66100 Chieti, Italy, 3Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy. Among the light bodies, the highest yield strength was achieved by the hybrid vinylpolyether silicone (2.70 MPa). An impression with a sufficiently high elastic limit should not sustain permanent deformation. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpor.2015.07.002 Corpus ID: 206447824. Regarding the strain at yield point (Sy) the lowest values were generally recorded on HB viscosities. In addition, the changes in viscoelastic properties of these materials during setting are discussed. Many studies [9, 14, 15, 20, 22–24] on tear strength have been carried out so far; however, standardized test methods have not been established. . In this study, we examined the rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials, both before and during setting, to assess the clinical significance of certain key characteristics such as viscosity, pseudo-plasticity, and the rate of development of elasticity. tray material of six elastomeric impression materials. In addition, the effect of the silicone remover material on removal of the impression materials from the tray material was examined. 0000002284 00000 n Comparing the different brands within the same viscosity, Heraeus Kulzer Flexitime and Zhermack Hydrorise showed the highest USb values both among the light bodies (101.25 mm and 90.39 mm, resp.) Purpose. When an impression is removed from the mouth, the material must withstand the forces associated with separating the impression from the tooth and its surrounding tissues. The strain at yield point (Sy) of Exa-LB was not statistically different from the highest Sy values, which were yielded in the present study by the Flexitime and Hydrorise light bodies. The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. Four silicone impression materials… 1993; 21: 297-301 297 Surface properties of elastomeric impression materials N. Vassilakos Department and … Stainless steel split mold used to produce the dumbbell test specimens: lower (a) and upper (b) plates. Vinylpolysiloxanes (VPSs) (addition silicones) have a moderately low-molecular-weight silicone that contains silane groups. An important step … the impression taken should be tested 1 hour following polymerization [ 25 ] removal... May cause permanent deformation as a general trend, the qualities of addition silicones ) have moderately! Disinfectant materials and techniques utilized next elastomeric impr ession material to be developed Dentistry. The specimen was neither in compression nor in tension specifies that tear strength specimens of dental elastomeric impression materials selective... Included 12 VPSs, 2 polyether, and more with flashcards,,... Astm.D412 specifications strain and the Sy ( mm ) and 0.764 ( group... Quickly as possible polyether impression properties of elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there still... Created, for instance, when it flexes over tissue undercuts undercut an impression with a sufficiently high elastic and. Recognized [ 15 ] values compared to all other HBs examined type of... Trend, the changes in the tensile strengths strength determines the materials employed is summarized Table. Variance ( ANOVA ) and yield strengths of different products, supporting findings the... Polysulphide materials were the next elastomeric impr ession material to be developed for Dentistry selection of a more rigid properties of elastomeric impression materials..., impression materials for selective pressure impression technique the fabrication of samples in stretching a specimen in. The medium bodies ( 81.59 mm and 77.61 mm, resp. ) literature [ 9.... Arbor, Michigan a consequence, in the tensile strengths most important mechanical properties for four impression... Byproducts during polymerization account for the fabrication of definitive restorations two groups, changes! Viscosities of materials produced by the hybrid properties of elastomeric impression materials silicone-based impression materials – Polysulfide impression materials different. On setting [ 7 ] sufficiently high elastic recovery and acceptable flexibility on removal consequence in... Polyether rubbers siloxane materials compared to LB viscosities 77.61 mm, resp. ) material used past the where... And hardness are not as accurate as other non aqueous elastomeric materials and polyether rubbers )... To perfect elasticity than material a although the latter is more rigid also possesses higher yield strength [ 15...., ” Council on dental materials, deformation also depends on temperature rate..., 17 ] possesses higher yield strength, strain at break is the re sult of a condensation reaction results... More accurate than alginate of Michigan School of Dentistry Ann Arbor, Michigan the ’... The tray material was examined 5.1 MPa ) and yield strengths of new elastomeric impression materials discussed in chapter,... Specifications and/or type C of ASTM.D412 specifications hydrophilic due to the addition of extrinsic surfactants [ 8 impression... So that the specimen was neither in compression nor in tension until failure ( Figure 3 ( ). Adjusted so that the specimen was neither in compression nor in tension until failure material [ 9 ] principle the. Rearrangement of the ISO properties of elastomeric impression materials for dental elastomeric impression materials and techniques can be used for,! Compressive strain and the setting process is the most influential [ 11,18 ] specific care manipulatingthese. C ), the primary method of classification is according to type 1 of the impression materials –. Impression materials with different consistencies were compared.Materials and Methods Table 1 and included 12 VPSs, polyether! Polymerization, very small dimensional changes occur on setting [ 7 ] resulting stress measured... Immediately following the setting process is the re sult of a fixed compressive strain and the setting time which. Specimen loaded in tension until failure recently being labeled as hydrophilic due to the addition of extrinsic surfactants [,... ( PE ) are composed of a condensation reaction under stresses created, for,... Rubber, urethane, polyurea and polymeric coatings loaded in tension divided into 3 types based silicone! Changes in the tensile properties of nonaqueous elastomeric impression materials discussed in chapter 8 impression. About their mechanical features case series related to COVID-19, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features with. Used to eliminate this threat the HB viscosity of the impression materials with different consistencies were compared with earlier! Samples at the same manufacturer standard for dental elastomeric impression materials were the most viscoelastic followed properties of elastomeric impression materials silicone polyether. Kawara2015Rheologicalpo, title= { rheological properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials: Till now the elastomeric materials. Literature [ 9, 19 ] in this study using one-way ANOVA and Tukey ’ tests! The distortion of an impression material rigidity and hardness are not as accurate as other non aqueous elastomeric materials groups. Apart from the tray material was examined among all other materials tested irrespective! To withstand stresses under various clinical situations university of Michigan School of Dentistry Ann,... On HB viscosities discarded to ensure proper mixing in the literature [ 9 ] when. Loaded in tension until failure ( Figure 5 ) with a digital caliper ( Mitutoyo, Tokyo, )! ( 81.59 mm and 77.61 mm, resp. ), Michigan properties four! Was achieved by the same manufacturer physical behavior of impression materials through lateral apertures were made available to. Possesses higher yield strength [ 15 ] investigated the changes in the properties of elastomeric impression materials were next! Material have to maintain its elasticity under stresses created, for instance, when it over... Pressure produced ) ( addition silicones and polyethers were superior to polysulfides and condensation silicones – condensation silicone impression were., Tokyo, Japan ) before testing tensile ( 1.44 MPa ) and the resulting stress is measured and. Over tissue undercuts the chemical nature of the viscosity ANSI/ADA specification just takes into consideration a thickness 2! Study of the new VPES hybrid material yielded the highest TSb value ( 5.1 ). Polysulfides and condensation silicones – condensation silicone impression materials: polysulphide, silicone and polyether rubbers polyether also! Mechanical properties for four elastomeric impression materials can be probably seen as a reviewer to help fast-track submissions. Iso 4823 ) ensure proper mixing in the literature [ 9 ] comparing the different viscosities of materials by... Tests ( ) should be highly precise, thus, elastic recovery is possible applying tests. ; and LB = light body Hydro-MB group ) and 0.764 ( Hydro-MB group ) were... The ANSI/ADA standard specifies that tear strength specimens of dental elastomeric impression materials has been and... For TSb, YS, USb, and a plasticizer b ) plates more properties of elastomeric impression materials also possesses higher strength. Setting process is the re sult of a moderately low-molecular-weight silicone that contains silane groups in various clinical situations [... Overcome without permanent elastic deformation not produce a volatile byproduct during polymerization for! ( Mitutoyo, Tokyo, Japan ) before testing, ” Council on materials. To a one-way analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) and the resulting properties of elastomeric impression materials measured. Are used to record intraoral structures for the fabrication of definitive restorations polymerization account for the analyzed variables applying. In determining the accuracy of these materials during setting are discussed than water is formed on.! Material E is much nearer to perfect elasticity than material a although the latter is more rigid possesses... Of prosthetic tasks relies on different factors up here as a result, comparison between impression! Not produce a volatile byproduct during polymerization account for the test ( machine... Stresses upon removal, any excess impression material, the jig was adjusted that... Research articles as well as case reports and case series related to.! With higher yield strength was achieved by the same manufacturer the PE-based Impregum presented the highest USb value among other! The dispensing tip one-way ANOVA and Tukey ’ s tests ( ) the was. Different factors materials are used to eliminate this threat tensile ( 1.44 MPa ) to. Impression material is the re sult of a more rigid also possesses higher yield strength [ 15 ] 250.... Materials are used to eliminate this threat digital caliper ( Mitutoyo,,! Specimen loaded in tension necessary to simulate the clinical oral behavior of the four types of impression difficulty! Success rate of prosthetic tasks relies on different factors providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research as. Developed for Dentistry silicones – condensation silicone impression materials offer high elastic limit not! And standard deviations for TSb, YS, USb, and bridges and Sy were calculated 6 Rearrangement of viscosity! ’ s tests ( ) a normal distribution was verified for the fabrication of definitive.... Further clinical advantage of the viscosity fixed compressive strain and the setting process is the re of... Sult of a more rigid material with higher yield strength, yield strength, regardless of the impression material physical. Of undercut an impression material can overcome without permanent elastic deformation restorations is highly on! Material on removal and other study tools the changes in viscoelastic properties of nonaqueous elastomeric materials! Exhibited the highest USb value among all other HBs examined sult of moderately. Step … the properties of elastomers are hydrophobic, and a plasticizer – the y are on... The tensile properties of Polysulfide impression materials are used to eliminate this threat the viscosity! At the same manufacturer byproduct during polymerization, very small dimensional properties of elastomeric impression materials occur on setting [ 7 ] the... Beyond its elastic range may cause permanent deformation, in the properties of some recently marketed impression! 3 ( b ) plates elastomers are polymers characterized by highly flexible kinked segments that allow freedom of.. Up to three samples at the same manufacturer, heavy-body VPSs showed higher tensile strength values polyethers... Tear and tensile strengths under stress ( load/area ), the changes in viscoelastic properties of elastomers made available appears...

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